What is the difference between targeted groups and final beneficiaries?

31-05-2019

The targeted groups and final beneficiaries :

It is important to clarify that identifying the direct beneficiaries of the project will only be possible after preparing the logframe and completing all activities, indicators and target number for every indicator and activity. There is a fundamental difference between final beneficiaries of the project and the targeted groups who have a real and direct effect on the beneficiaries.

Targeted groups :
Targeted groups are the groups responsible for the problem. These groups are being targeted due to their direct effect on the beneficiaries.

For example, teachers, fathers and mothers have a direct impact on students or children; similarly, workers in health facilities have a direct impact on patients.

Beneficiaries :
Beneficiaries are the affected people by the problem and for them, the project is planned.

Characteristics

Targeted groups

Beneficiaries

Impact

Cause of the problem

Affected by the problem

Number

Specific groups, limited in number can be easily calculated to know the targeted number

Large in number and equations are needed to know the final beneficiaries

Question

What? Who?

Why? For whom?

Level

Project outputs

Project outcome

Measurement

Monitoring

Evaluation 

Comparison between the targeted groups and the beneficiaries


How to calculate the targeted groups

While writing the project proposal, the targeted groups are calculated in a very easy way. For example in case we want to calculate the number of health personnel we want to train, first we agree on the number of trainings that will be carried out and the number of people in each activity, the total will be the number of trainees.

 

Example:

We know that training in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) means to train 24 trainees according the standards of the ministry of health and is followed by all the working organizations like WHO and UNICEF. So if we want to conduct one training only in the project, we will target 24 persons only. Then we expect that the 24 persons will be 12 male health workers of doctors and nurses, 12 female health workers of doctors, nurses and midwives. Therefore in the logframe we put the indicator as follows:


How to calculate the beneficiaries

All donors agreed that beneficiaries’ identification should be based on age and sex in the project proposals and reports issued. In order to calculate the number of beneficiaries in projects that provide services for all people in large numbers, we have to use an equation to calculate the beneficiaries as follows:

Indicator

Target

# of health workers to be trained in Integrated Management of Childhood Illness ( IMCI )

Men

Women

Boys

Girls

Total

12

12

 

 

24

According to sex

According to age

Males

49%

Men ( over 18 )

40%

Boys ( younger than 18)

60%

females

51%

Women ( over 18 )

40%

Girls ( younger than 18)

60%

 

The percentage differs from one country to another according to the general population census and the distribution of population pyramid.

Because the donors require clear identification of the expected number of beneficiaries or the targeted groups in every project proposal, we need to learn the ways to calculate these numbers and distribute them in every related activity or indicator, as well as in problem assessment, outcome and outputs.

Example:

We will support 10 health facilities that provide primary health care, as well as mother and child care services for 12 months. In order to calculate the expected number of beneficiaries, we do the following:

·         Assume that every health facility will provide health services for 20 people per day.

·         Assume that the health facility will work for 22 days a month.

So we have:

·         The number of beneficiaries (males / females)  in a month:

20 people × 22 days= 440 people per month

·         The number of beneficiaries (males / females) in all targeted health facilities per month:

440 people × 10 facilities= 4400 people in a month in all facilities

·         The total of beneficiaries (males / females) in all health facilities in 12 months:

4400 people × 12 months= 52800 people in 12 months in all facilities.

So the total expected number of beneficiaries (Males / females) is 52800 people.


In order for us to put this number in the logframe, we need to distribute the number according to sex and age into men, women, boys and girls. In this case, we will have to use an equation to distribute the beneficiaries in the example above as the following:
Number of men= total x male percentage x (over 18 years percentage)52800 × 0.49 × 0.40= 10349
Number of women= total × female percentage × over 18 years percentage
52800 × 0.51 × 0.40= 10771

Number of boys= total × male percentage × under 18 years percentage
52800 × 0.49 × 0.60= 15523

Number of girls=total × female percentage × under 18 years percentage
52800 × 0.51 × 0.60= 16157


So, we put the indicator in the logframe as follows:

Indicator

Target

Men

Women

Boys

Girls

total

# of beneficiaries in all targeted health facilities

10349

10771

15523

16157

52800

 

In case you are planning to implement an activity that targets pregnant women like providing pregnant care services via targeted health facilities, you will need to know the number of pregnant women who will be provided with services in the targeted areas and they are part of the total number mentioned in the above example (52800)

To know the expected number of pregnant women who will benefit from the service, we do the following:

·         Assume that the annual growth rate of the population in the country = 3% every year (every 12 months)

·         This means in 12 months in which services will be provided, the percentage of pregnant women= 3% of the beneficiaries’ total number.

So the equation we use to calculate pregnant women, who will get pregnant care services, is:

Number of pregnant women= total × 0.03
52800 × 0.03= 1584


So we put the indicator in the logframe as follows:

Indicator

Target

# of women who got pregnant care services

Men

Women

Boys

Girls

total

0

1584

0

0

1584

 

In case the project is educational and we want to implement activities for children in school, aged (6-18 years), we expect that usually this age group represents at least 20% of the total targeted population. If the targeted district population is 100.000 people, it means that:

Children in school age = total × 0.20

100000 × 0.20= 20000


By using the percentage of males and females in the table (       ) concerning beneficiaries’ distribution equation, we can get the number of boys and girls.

So, we but the indicator in the logframe as follows:

Indicator

Target

# of targeted children in school age (6-18 years)

Men

Women

Boys

Girls

total

0

0

9800

10200

20000

 

Thus, we do an estimate calculation of the beneficiaries in all the indicators we put in the project by knowing the estimate percentage of the beneficiaries according to age group and population census of the country, in which the project will be implemented.

To know the total expected number of the beneficiaries (males & females) in the project, we use the beneficiaries calculation form in table (     ) and move all the indicators of the project to this form. We consider any total number for an indicator a single count in case it showed up once. While if the same number of beneficiaries is repeated in some indicators, we take into consideration that it is a double count. In order to calculate the total number of beneficiaries, we adopt the unrepeated numbers.

In case the total number of one of the indicators is the highest and at the same time, is the same number of people in the other indicators, we generally consider it the total number of beneficiaries, then we divide the beneficiaries only according to this number. Please see the form to calculate beneficiaries in the next table to know how to identify the number of beneficiaries clearly with all related notes.

Single and double count indicator
One of the important things that takes considerable time and discussion between the applicant organization and the donor while reviewing the project by the donor and before signing the contract, is to make sure the beneficiaries number is correct and not doubled.

In view of the difficulty of this matter, we put a form of calculating beneficiaries to help clarify the single and double count indicators. The single count indicators are the indicators of which the total numbers equal the total number of beneficiaries of the project.

Example:

We have 1000 students (male & female) for whom classes will be built and will be provided with school bags, books and meals.

So we will have 4 indicators in the project:

·         # of students (males & females) that benefited from the classes that have been built

·         # of students (males & females) that benefited from the school bags that were provided

·         # of students (males & females) that benefited from the books that were distributed

·         # of students (males & females) that benefited from the meals that were provided

So every indicator refers to the same number of students (males & females) which is 1000 students.

Therefore, we will appoint one of the above indicators as a single count indicator, while the other three will be double count indicators because the beneficiaries are the same students.

So the donor knows that we correctly know the number of beneficiaries, as we clarify that we didn’t double the numbers and said that 4000 students will benefit from the project, confirming the number is only 1000 which is the correct one.


Remember:

The total number of beneficiaries in single count indicators must equal the total number of beneficiaries according to the targeted locations and sex.


Indicator

location

Men

Women

Boys

Girls

Total

Notes

# of wells-drilled, constructed or rehabilitated

Tuban – Lahj

0

0

0

0

7

 

Yareem – Ibb

0

0

0

0

7

 

Total indicator

 

0

0

0

0

7

Double

# of people that benefited from rehabilitated water resources

Tuban – Lahj

627

653

941

979

3200

 

Yareem – Ibb

627

653

941

979

3200

 

Total indicator

 

1254

1306

1882

1958

6400

Single

# of HHs that were provided with ceramic filters for water  purification

Tuban – Lahj

0

0

0

0

457

 

Yareem – Ibb

0

0

0

0

457

 

Total indicator

 

0

0

0

0

914

Double

# of HHs that their awareness were raised on the rehabilitation, construction and coverage of latrines

Tuban – Lahj

0

0

0

0

457

 

Yareem – Ibb

0

0

0

0

457

 

Total indicator

 

0

0

0

0

914

Double

# of latrines that  were rehabilitated, constructed and covered

Tuban – Lahj

0

0

0

0

457

 

Yareem – Ibb

0

0

0

0

457

 

Total indicator

 

      0

0

0

0

914

Double

# of awareness sessions conducted on hygiene

Tuban – Lahj

0

0

0

0

220

 

Yareem – Ibb

0

0

0

0

220

 

Total indicator

 

0

0

0

0

440

Double

# of HHs that benefited from hygiene kits

Tuban – Lahj

0

0

0

0

457

 

Yareem – Ibb

0

0

0

0

457

 

Total indicator

 

0

0

0

0

914

Double

# of volunteers trained to promote for hygiene

Tuban – Lahj

11

11

0

0

22

 

Yareem – Ibb

11

11

0

0

22

 

Total indicator

 

22

22

0

0

44

Double

 

Total beneficiaries ( single count) according to the targeted district

Tuban – Lahj

627

653

941

979

3200

Yareem – Ibb

627

653

941

979

3200

Total

1254

1306

1882

1958

6400

 

Total beneficiaries ( double count) according to type

Host community

251

262

377

392

1282

IDPs

1003

1044

1505

1566

5118

Total

1254

1306

1882

1958

6400

Beneficiaries’ calculation form



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